Equal Medicine Organization – Medical Marijuana Proves to Cure Parkinson’s Disease
Parkinson’s disease is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system mainly affecting the motor system. Symptoms are movement-related such as shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement and difficulty with walking and gait. Later, thinking and behavioral problems may arise, with dementia commonly occurring in the advanced stages of the disease, and depression being the most common psychiatric symptom.
C-Green (Serves 1 or 2)
- 3 – Sprigs fresh parsley
- 1 – Handful fresh spinach leaves
- 1 – Handful watercress
- 1 – Apple
- Please Note: Parsley should be avoided during pregnancy and in cases of kidney inflammation-ads to shaking (tremors) and difficulty with walking, movement, and coordination.
Beet (Serves 1 or 2)
- 2 – Beets, tops intact
- 2 – Carrots
- 2 – Apples
Cannabis (medical marijuana) treatment for motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson disease: an open-label observational study.
- Department of Neurology, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Hospital, Petach Tikva; and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
The use of cannabis as a therapeutic agent for various medical conditions has been well documented. However, clinical trials in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) have yielded conflicting results. The aim of the present open-label observational study was to assess the clinical effect of cannabis on motor and non-motor symptoms of PD.
Twenty-two patients with PD attending the motor disorder clinic of a tertiary medical center in 2011 to 2012 were evaluated at baseline and 30 minutes after smoking cannabis using the following battery: Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale, visual analog scale, present pain intensity scale, Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire, as well as Medical Cannabis Survey National Drug and Alcohol Research Center Questionnaire.
Mean (SD) total score on the motor Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale score improved significantly from 33.1 (13.8) at baseline to 23.2 (10.5) after cannabis consumption (t = 5.9; P < 0.001). Analysis of specific motor symptoms revealed significant improvement after treatment in tremor (P < 0.001), rigidity (P = 0.004), and bradykinesia (P < 0.001).
There was also significant improvement of sleep and pain scores. No significant adverse effects of the drug were observed. The study suggests that cannabis might have a place in the therapeutic armamentarium of PD. Larger, controlled studies are needed to verify the results.
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Background: The long-term treatment of Parkinson disease (PD) may be complicated by the development of levodopa-induced dyskinesia. Clinical and animal model data support the view that modulation of cannabinoid function may exert an antidyskinetic effect. The authors conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial to examine the hypothesis that cannabis may have a beneficial effect on dyskinesia in PD.
Methods: A 4-week dose escalation study was performed to assess the safety and tolerability of cannabis in six PD patients with levodopa-induced dyskinesia. Then a randomized placebo-controlled crossover study (RCT) was performed, in which 19 PD patients were randomized to receive oral cannabis extract followed by placebo or vice versa. Each treatment phase lasted for 4 weeks with an intervening 2-week washout phase. The primary outcome measure was a change in Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) (items 32 to 34) dyskinesia score. Secondary outcome measures included the Rush scale, Bain scale, tablet arm drawing task, and total UPDRS score following a levodopa challenge, as well as patient-completed measures of a dyskinesia activities of daily living (ADL) scale, the PDQ-39, on-off diaries, and a range of category rating scales.
Results: Seventeen patients completed the RCT. Cannabis was well tolerated, and had no pro- or antiparkinsonian action. There was no evidence for a treatment effect on levodopa-induced dyskinesia as assessed by the UPDRS, or any of the secondary outcome measures.
Conclusions: Orally administered cannabis extract resulted in no objective or subjective improvement in dyskinesias or parkinsonism.
An anonymous questionnaire sent to all patients attending the Prague Movement Disorder Centre revealed that 25% of 339 respondents had taken cannabis and 45.9% of these described some form of benefit. © 2004 Movement Disorder Society
Research of the cannabinoid system has many similarities with that of the opioid system. In both instances, studies into drug-producing plants led to the discovery of an endogenous control system with a central role in neurobiology. Few compounds have had as much positive press from patients as those of the cannabinoid system. While these claims are investigated in disorders such as multiple sclerosis spasticity and pain, basic research is discovering interesting members of this family of compounds that have previously unknown qualities, the most notable of which is the capacity for neuroprotection. Large randomised clinical trials of the better known compounds are in progress. Even if the results of these studies are not as positive as many expect them to be, that we are only just beginning to appreciate the huge therapeutic potential of this family of compounds is clear.
Cannabis in Movement Disorders
Müller-Vahl K.R.a · Kolbe H.b · Schneider U.a · Emrich H.M.a
Central cannabinoid receptors are densely located in the output nuclei of the basal ganglia (globus pallidus, substantia nigra pars reticulata), suggesting their involvement in the regulation of motor activity. Furthermore, there is evidence that endogenous cannabinoid transmission plays a role in the manipulation of other transmitter systems within the basal ganglia by increasing GABAergic transmission, inhibiting glutamate release and affecting dopaminergic uptake. Most hyperkinetic and hypokinetic movement disorders are caused by a dysfunction of basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. It has been suggested that an endogenous cannabinoid tone participates in the control of movements and, therefore, the central cannabinoid system might play a role in the pathophysiology of these diseases. During the last years in humans a limited number of clinical trials demonstrated that cannabinoids might be useful in the treatment of movement disorders. Despite the lack of controlled studies there is evidence that cannabinoids are of therapeutic value in the treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome, the reduction of levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson”s disease and some forms of tremor and dystonia. It can be speculated that cannabinoid antagonists might be useful in the treatment of chorea in Huntington”s disease and hypokinetic parkinsonian syndromes.
© 1999 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg
Evaluation of the neuroprotective effect of cannabinoids in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease: importance of antioxidant and cannabinoid receptor-independent properties.
- Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular III, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, 28040-Madrid, Spain.
We have recently demonstrated that two plant-derived cannabinoids, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol (CBD), are neuroprotective in an animal model of Parkinson’s disease (PD), presumably because of their antioxidant properties. To further explore this issue, we examined the neuroprotective effects of a series of cannabinoid-based compounds, with more selectivity for different elements of the cannabinoid signalling system, in rats with unilateral lesions of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons caused by local application of 6-hydroxydopamine. We used the CB1 receptor agonist arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide (ACEA), the CB2 receptor agonist HU-308, the non-selective agonist WIN55,212-2, and the inhibitors of the endocannabinoid inactivation AM404 and UCM707, all of them administered i.p. Daily administration of ACEA or WIN55,212-2 did not reverse 6-hydroxydopamine-induced dopamine (DA) depletion in the lesioned side, whereas HU-308 produced a small recovery that supports a possible involvement of CB2 but not CB1 receptors. AM404 produced a marked recovery of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced DA depletion and tyrosine hydroxylase deficit in the lesioned side. Possibly, this is caused by the antioxidant properties of AM404, which are derived from the presence of a phenolic group in its structure, rather than by the capability of AM404 to block the endocannabinoid transporter, because UCM707, another transporter inhibitor devoid of antioxidant properties, did not produce the same effect. None of these effects were observed in non-lesioned contralateral structures. We also examined the timing for the effect of CBD to provide neuroprotection in this rat model of PD. We found that CBD, as expected, was able to recover 6-hydroxydopamine-induced DA depletion when it was administered immediately after the lesion, but it failed to do that when the treatment started 1 week later. In addition, the effect of CBD implied an upregulation of mRNA levels for Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase, a key enzyme in endogenous defenses against oxidative stress. In summary, our results indicate that those cannabinoids having antioxidant cannabinoid receptor-independent properties provide neuroprotection against the progressive degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons occurring in PD. In addition, the activation of CB2 (but not CB1) receptors, or other additional mechanisms, might also contribute to some extent to the potential of cannabinoids in this disease.